Nursing Leadership and Management

What is leadership and management in nursing practice?

Leadership and management are two critical components in the healthcare industry. They are the driving force behind the success and quality of healthcare delivery. The roles of leaders and managers are similar and run parallel to each other. They have distinct responsibilities and functions that contribute to the overall operation of a healthcare organization.

Effective nursing leadership involves motivating and inspiring others towards a common goal by establishing a collaborative, innovative, and continuously improving environment. The role of a nursing leader extends beyond providing direct patient care; they also guide other healthcare professionals for quality patient care and participate in shaping healthcare policies.

Management in nursing practice encompasses the organizational and administrative aspects of nursing. It involves planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and coordinating the delivery of healthcare services. Effective management is crucial for the efficient and effective utilization of resources to provide optimal patient care.

Table Of Contents
  1. What is leadership and management in nursing practice?
  2. Difference between leadership and management
  3. 7 Theories of leadership and management
  4. 7 Approaches of effective leadership and management
  5. 13 Distinctive leadership styles by Buchanan
  6. What are the 4 basic functions of management?
  7. Types of nursing management
  8. Behaviors and Qualities of Effective Leader and Manager
  9. Problem solving and decision making process in nursing management
  10. Comparison and similarities of the Problem-Solving Process, Nursing Process, and the NCJMM Cognitive Skills in NCLEX-RN Exam
  11. Conclusion
  12. References:

Leadership and management skills empower nurses to advocate for patients’ rights, guide their teams, and contribute to organizational goals. Moreover, these roles empower nurses to bring change in healthcare systems and improve patient outcomes.

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Difference between leadership and management

The difference between leadership and management is nuanced yet significant. Both are crucial for the effective functioning of any organization, but they entail different responsibilities, skills, and approaches.

1. Leadership

  1. Leadership often requires a visionary approach, the ability to inspire and motivate, and a focus on people and relationships.
  2. Leaders inspire with a shared vision and rally their teams around a common cause, fostering creativity and encouraging individual growth.
  3. Leadership is about impressing others to achieve a common goal.
  4. Leaders typically are the ones who initiate and drive change within an organization. They have a forward-looking view and strategize for future challenges and opportunities.
  5. A leader inspires and motivates their team to reach their full potential.
  6. Leaders do not necessarily adhere strictly to rules or policies but use innovative thinking to guide their actions.
  7. Leaders have a vision for the future and work towards turning it into reality.
  8. Leaders foster an environment that encourages growth, creativity, and innovation.
  9. Leaders exhibit an influential style of working and are often admired for their charisma, passion, and ability to empower others.
  10. Leaders are more people-oriented; they understand the strengths and weaknesses of their team members and encourage them to perform at their best.
  11. Leaders inspire growth, innovation, and change.
list of differences in a leader and manager

2. Management

  1. Management involves control and problem-solving within a structured environment.
  2. Managers often possess a directive style of working, establishing detailed strategies and ensuring their team follows them meticulously.
  3. Management is more focused on systems, processes, and achieving defined objectives.
  4. Managers focus on planning, setting, measuring, and achieving goals.
  5. Managers control situations to reach or exceed their objectives, often through policies and procedures.
  6. Managers often deal with implementing changes.
  7. Managers ensure that daily operations align with the organization’s broader goals.
  8. A manager primarily focuses on operations, ensuring the smooth functioning of a team or a business.
  9. A manager’s role is often associated with planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling.
  10. Managers work by the book, adhering strictly to rules and guidelines set by the organization.
  11. Managers focus on meeting set goals and targets, using their resources most efficiently to achieve desired results.
  12. Managers ensure stability and efficiency in day-to-day operations.
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7 Theories of leadership and management

Theories of leadership and management have evolved to adapt to the shifting business landscapes and societal norms. These theories of leadership and management offer different perspectives on how leaders can effectively guide their teams. Five dominant theories that have significantly influenced leadership and management practices include:

  1. Charismatic
  2. Quantum
  3. Relational
  4. Servant
  5. Shared
  6. Transactional theory
  7. Transformational theory

1. Charismatic theory

Charismatic theory accentuates the power of charisma in influencing and motivating followers. Charismatic leaders are often seen as heroic or inspiring, possessing qualities such as confidence, dominance, and strong conviction in their beliefs. They have a knack for creating a vision that resonates with their followers, compelling them to commit to the vision. However, this leadership style may lead to over-reliance on the leader and potential risk if the leader’s vision is flawed.

image for leadership theories

2. Quantum theory

Quantum theory, on the other hand, draws parallels from quantum physics principles. It posits that leaders and managers should be adaptable and flexible, acknowledging the dynamic nature of organizations and the interconnectedness of their parts. The quantum leader understands that a small change in one area can cause significant shifts in another, thus promoting a holistic approach to decision-making.

3. Relational theory

Relational theory focuses on the relationships between leaders and followers. This approach promotes trust, mutual respect and open communication. It emphasizes that effective leadership is not just about achieving goals but also about building strong relationships within the team. This theory aligns well with today’s business environment where collaboration and teamwork are highly valued.

4. Servant theory

The servant leader prioritizes the needs of the team members, focusing on their growth and well-being. This approach fosters trust and collaboration but requires leaders to suppress their egos and potentially sacrifice their ambitions for the good of the team.

5. Shared theory

The shared theory challenges the traditional hierarchical structures by promoting a more democratic approach where leadership roles are distributed within a team. It recognizes that different individuals may possess different skills and experiences valuable to certain situations. Consequently, shared leadership can foster a sense of ownership and responsibility among team members, enhancing engagement and productivity.

6. Transactional theory

Transactional theory, as the name suggests, is based on a transaction or exchange process between the leader and followers. This theory postulates that leaders provide rewards or punishments to their followers based on the adequacy of their performance. The emphasis is on maintaining the status quo and managing through clear structures and processes. Transactional leadership can be effective in situations where tasks are clearly defined, and goals are set.

7. Transformational theory

The transformational theory focuses more on inspiring and motivating followers to exceed their performance expectations and work towards a greater collective objective. Transformational leaders stimulate intellectual curiosity, challenge existing assumptions, and encourage creativity among their followers. They influence change by acting as role models, fostering a culture of trust, and encouraging personal development.

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7 Approaches of effective leadership and management

  1. Authoritarian
  2. Democratic
  3. Laissez-faire
  4. Situational
  5. Bureaucratic
  6. Transformational
  7. Servant

Each of these leadership and management approaches has its unique strengths and weaknesses. The most effective leaders are those who can adapt their approach to meet the needs of their team and the particular circumstances they face. However, the choice of leadership approach should be contingent on the organization’s culture, the nature of work, and the specific needs and characteristics of the team members.

1. Authoritarian approach

The authoritarian approach in leadership and management is characterized by a central decision-making process where the leader exercises full control over all aspects of the organization. This approach, while effective in times of crisis or when quick decisions are required, can stifle creativity and reduce employee satisfaction. The leader makes all strategic decisions and communicates them to their subordinates who are expected to execute them without question. Although this approach can ensure efficiency and consistency, it may not foster an environment of innovation and personal growth.

chart of 7 approaches of  leadership and mangement

2. Democratic approach

The democratic approach encourages participation from all members of the organization in the decision-making process. This approach fosters an environment of openness, collaboration, and shared responsibility. It encourages diverse perspectives and gives employees a sense of ownership over their work. However, democratic leadership may also lead to slower decision-making processes due to the need for consensus.

3. Laissez-faire approach

The laissez-faire approach in leadership and management translates to ‘let do’, and is characterized by minimal interference from leaders. In this approach, leaders provide their teams with resources and advice but largely leave them to make decisions and solve problems independently. This approach can foster innovation and creativity as it gives employees the freedom to experiment and learn. However, without clear directions and expectations, laissez-faire leadership could lead to confusion and a lack of accountability.

4. Situational approach

Situational leadership adapts to the needs of the team and the specific situation at hand. This flexible approach allows leaders to switch between leadership and management approaches as needed. For instance, they might adopt an authoritarian approach during a crisis but switch to a democratic approach when brainstorming new ideas. Situational leadership and management promote adaptability and resilience but require leaders to be skilled in multiple approaches to leadership.

5. Bureaucratic approach

The bureaucratic approach to leadership and management is rooted in rules, procedures, and regulations. Bureaucratic leaders tend to adhere strictly to policies and hierarchies within the organization, ensuring all actions align with established guidelines. While this approach can foster consistency and predictability, it may not be as flexible or adaptable to change, which is critical in the dynamic business environment.

6. Transformational approach

Transformational leadership and management take a more dynamic approach. Leaders following this approach motivate their teams by aligning group goals with the values and ideals of individual members. They encourage innovation and personal growth among their subordinates by promoting a shared vision and fostering an environment of trust and respect. Transformational leaders often inspire their teams to exceed their expectations and achieve extraordinary results. While this approach can lead to high levels of employee engagement and satisfaction, it requires a leader with strong charisma and the ability to develop deep interpersonal relationships.

7. Servant approach

Servant leadership and management approach centers around the leader serving their team members. Servant leaders prioritize the needs of their team members, focusing on their growth and well-being. They believe in distributing power among team members, fostering a sense of community, and promoting ethical and caring behavior. This approach can lead to high levels of trust and cooperation within teams, but it may also require a significant amount of time to build these relationships.

13 Distinctive leadership styles by Buchanan

The world of leadership and management is diverse and continuously evolving, largely attributed to the varying styles and approaches that leaders employ. The choice of leadership style ultimately depends on the leader’s personality, the nature of the team they’re leading, and the specific circumstances or challenges at hand.

1. Adaptive leadership style

Adaptive leadership is a practical leadership framework that helps individuals and organizations adapt to changing environments and effectively respond to recurring challenges. It involves being open to changes, embracing new ideas, and being flexible in one’s approach to dealing with varying situations. Adaptive leaders are not afraid to step out of their comfort zones, make tough decisions, or take calculated risks. They recognize that the business environment is dynamic and that successful navigation through this dynamism requires constant evolution and adaptation.

a chain of leadership styles

2. Emotionally intelligent leadership style

Emotionally intelligent leadership emphasizes the ability of leaders to recognize, understand, and manage their own emotions and those of their followers. This style of leadership focuses on promoting a healthy emotional climate within the organization which can foster employee motivation, satisfaction, and performance. Emotionally intelligent leaders possess skills such as empathy, self-awareness, and social skills. They are attuned to their team’s feelings and can navigate through the emotional undercurrents within their teams.

3. Charismatic leadership style

The charismatic leadership style is characterized by the charm and persuasive ability of the leader. Charismatic leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and have a magnetic charisma that inspires others. They are often able to articulate a compelling or captivating vision, create a sense of pride among their followers, convey a high degree of confidence, and demonstrate a strong commitment to their followers.

4. Authentic leadership style

Authentic leadership emphasizes authenticity and encourages leaders to be true to themselves. This style fosters trust and promotes a positive work environment. Authentic leaders are transparent, and ethical, and lead with their hearts. They inspire their employees to be genuine and to act with integrity. This leadership style creates a culture where truth and values are held in high regard.

5. Level 5 leadership style

Level 5 leadership term was coined by a business consultant Jim Collins that refers to the highest level of the hierarchy of executive capabilities. Level 5 leaders have a distinctive combination of personal humility and professional will, which sets them apart from others. They are self-effacing individuals who deflect praise onto their team yet take full responsibility for any shortcomings or failures. Their ambition is directed towards the success of their organizations and not their personal glory.

6. Mindful leadership style

Mindful leadership encourages leaders to be present in the moment and demonstrate open-mindedness. This style fosters emotional intelligence and helps leaders respond rather than react to situations. Mindful leaders prioritize empathy and rational decision-making for the mutual benefit of the organization and employees.

7. Narcissistic leadership style

A narcissistic leadership style is characterized by self-centered attitudes and a lack of empathy for others. While such leaders can initially appear charismatic and visionary, their management style can lead to toxic work environments over time. They tend to make decisions that serve their interests rather than those of the team or the organization.

8. No Excuse leadership style

No Excuse leadership style is characterized by accountability and high expectations. Leaders following this style don’t accept excuses for poor performance but instead motivate their team to overcome obstacles and deliver results. They focus on problem-solving rather than blame-assigning.

9. Resonant leadership style

Resonant leaders are known for their ability to connect with their team members on an emotional level, inspiring and motivating them toward achieving their goals. They cultivate a positive work environment that resonates with the employees’ values and aspirations, thus enhancing productivity and job satisfaction.

10. Servant leadership style

Servant leadership style is characterized by leaders who put the needs of their team before their own. These leaders believe in serving their team and ensuring that they have all the resources and support they need to succeed. Servant leaders prioritize the growth and well-being of their team members, often leading to highly motivated and loyal employees.

11. Storyteller leadership style

Storyteller leadership is about creating a compelling narrative around the organization’s mission, vision, and goals. Storytellers use stories to inspire, engage, and align their teams. They understand the power of a good story in making complex ideas more comprehensible and relatable. Storytelling as a leadership style helps in building a strong connection with the team and fostering a sense of belonging.

12. Strength-based leadership style

Strength-based leadership focuses on identifying and leveraging the strengths of individual team members instead of focusing on their weaknesses. This style is about recognizing the unique abilities of each employee and assigning tasks that match their strengths. It fosters an environment where employees feel valued and appreciated for their contributions, thereby improving their performance and job satisfaction.

13. Tribal leadership style

Tribal leadership is a style that emphasizes the importance of building strong relationships within a group or ‘tribe’. Tribal leaders work towards creating a sense of community within their teams by fostering shared values and goals. They understand that a unified team can achieve far greater things than individuals working in silos.

Each of these leadership and management styles offers unique benefits and can be effective in different situations. The key is for leaders to understand these styles and adapt them to their team’s needs and organizational culture. They should strive to create a work environment that encourages open communication, collaboration, and mutual respect, regardless of the leadership style they choose to adopt.

What are the 4 basic functions of management?

Management, as a discipline, is fundamentally about coordinating the various resources and processes within an organization to achieve its goals. Four basic functions of management encompass all the activities conducted by managers to ensure effective and efficient operations. These functions are:

  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Directing
  4. Controlling.

1. Planning

Effective management requires assertive planning, which entails defining clear and concise goals, formulating robust strategies to achieve those goals, and seamlessly integrating and coordinating activities to ensure success. Managers engage in planning to anticipate future conditions, determine the best course of action to achieve specified results and minimize risk and uncertainty.

picture describing four functions of manager

2. Organizing

The organizing function of management involves structuring work to achieve organizational goals. Managers need to organize tasks and responsibilities in a way that ensures they are appropriately distributed among individuals and departments. This includes deciding how tasks will be grouped, who will perform them, where decisions will be made, and how resources will be allocated. Organizing also includes designing an organizational structure that provides a framework for coordinating efforts.

3. Directing

Directing involves leading, motivating, and communicating with employees. Managers must take responsibility for directing their teams toward achieving organizational goals. This includes making decisions, delegating tasks, resolving conflicts, and communicating effectively with team members. Directing also involves inspiring and motivating employees to perform at their best.

4. Controlling

Controlling involves monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any deviations. Managers must ensure that the actions of their teams align with the organization’s goals and standards. This requires setting performance standards, measuring actual performance against these standards, identifying deviations, and taking corrective action when necessary.

These functions provide a useful framework for thinking about management tasks and responsibilities, and they underline the importance of a balanced and systematic approach to managing organizational resources and processes.

Types of nursing management

Nursing management encompasses various administrative functions in the healthcare sector, characterized by distinct levels of responsibility and authority. The primary categories of nursing management include front-line, middle, and nurse executive positions.

1. Front-line management

Front-line nursing management refers to the initial level of management in the nursing profession. Front-line managers, often known as charge nurses or head nurses, supervise the day-to-day operations of a particular nursing unit or department. They are directly involved in patient care, ensuring quality service delivery and adherence to healthcare guidelines. The front-line managers are typically responsible for managing a team of nurses, delegating duties, and coordinating care plans for patients. Their role necessitates strong leadership, communication skills, and clinical expertise as they act as a bridge between the nursing staff and higher-level management.

image describing three types of nursing management

2. Middle management

Middle nursing management represents the next tier in the hierarchy of nursing administration. These roles may include nurse managers or directors who oversee multiple units or departments. Middle managers are primarily involved in implementing policies and procedures set out by upper management, managing budgets, and ensuring compliance with regulatory standards. They play a critical role in maintaining an efficient and effective healthcare delivery system by evaluating staff performance, monitoring patient outcomes, and promoting professional development among nurses. The middle managers serve as a link between the front-line nurses and the nurse executives, facilitating communication and driving organizational goals.

3. Nurse executives

The highest level of nursing management is occupied by nurse executives. These are top-tier nursing professionals who have a significant influence on healthcare policy and strategic decision-making within an organization. Nurse executives may hold titles such as Chief Nursing Officer (CNO), Vice President of Nursing, or Director of Nursing Services. Their responsibilities extend beyond clinical care to include areas such as strategic planning, financial management, human resources, quality improvement, and patient safety initiatives. They work closely with other healthcare executives to shape the organization’s vision, mission, values, and long-term goals.

Behaviors and Qualities of Effective Leader and Manager

The behaviors and qualities of an effective leader and manager are fundamental in steering an organization toward success. These behaviors and qualities are not just about achieving targets and meeting goals, but they are the embodiment of positive values that foster a conducive working environment for every team member.


1. Inspires others

An effective leader inspires their team. They have a vision and can articulate it in a manner that inspires others to share in that vision. This inspiration isn’t about creating followers, but rather about generating other leaders within the team who can drive the vision forward. Leaders who inspire create an atmosphere of enthusiasm and commitment, where individuals feel motivated to contribute their best towards the collective goal.

image describing behaviors of manager

2. Treats equally

This is important to how a leader treats their team members. An effective leader treats everyone with respect and dignity, regardless of their position in the organization. They value diversity and encourage inclusivity, fostering an environment where everyone feels valued for their contributions. This positive treatment builds trust and encourages open communication within the team.

3. Communicates openly

Communication is indeed another crucial behavior of an effective leader. They communicate openly, honestly, and frequently with their team members, ensuring that everyone is on the same page regarding objectives and expectations. Through clear communication, a leader can avoid misunderstandings and promote a culture of transparency and accountability.

4. Accessible for everyone

Being visible is another essential behavior of an effective leader or manager. This doesn’t mean being physically present at all times but rather being accessible and approachable to their team members. They demonstrate the behaviors they expect from their team and are not afraid to roll up their sleeves when necessary.

5. Motivates others

An effective leader motivates their team. They understand what drives each individual within their team and use this understanding to tailor motivation strategies. Motivation in this context goes beyond financial incentives; it includes recognition of effort, growth opportunities, and creating a supportive work environment.


1. Credible

Credibility is a fundamental quality that both leaders and managers should possess. A credible leader or manager is trustworthy, reliable, and consistent in their actions and decisions. They are transparent in their communication and are honest about the challenges and successes of the organization. This credibility fosters trust within the team, which in turn promotes engagement, commitment, and productivity.

image of 8 qualities of manager

2. Critical thinker

Being a critical thinker is another vital quality for effective leadership and management. Critical thinking involves analyzing situations or problems thoroughly before making decisions. A leader or manager who is a critical thinker does not simply accept things at face value but seeks to understand the underlying causes and potential implications. They can see beyond the obvious, anticipate potential issues, and develop strategic solutions. Their decisions are informed, balanced, and forward-thinking, which enables them to navigate complex business environments successfully.

3. Initiator

Initiative is also a key quality in effective leadership and management. An initiator is proactive rather than reactive, taking steps to influence outcomes rather than just responding to events as they happen. They are self-starters who are willing to go above and beyond their job descriptions to drive progress. They seize opportunities, motivate others to do the same and create a culture of action that propels the organization forward.

4. Risk taker

An effective leader or manager must be a risk-taker. This does not imply recklessness, but rather the willingness to step out of comfort zones and make bold decisions in pursuit of growth and innovation. Risk-taking involves embracing uncertainty and viewing it as an opportunity rather than a threat. It requires courage, adaptability, and resilience, as well as the ability to balance risk with reward.

5. Persuasive

Being persuasive is a vital quality of effective leaders and managers. Persuasion entails the ability to articulate one’s thoughts and ideas convincingly to influence others. A persuasive leader or manager can inspire team members and accelerate decision-making processes. They use persuasive techniques not to manipulate but to align everyone with the organization’s goals.

6. Influencer

The attribute of influence is another significant quality that distinguishes effective leaders and managers from others. Influencers are charismatic individuals who inspire others through their actions, words, and attitudes. They can shape thoughts, change behaviors, and steer individuals toward achieving collective objectives.

7. Effective communicator

Communication is an integral part of leadership and management. Effective leaders and managers are excellent communicators. They have mastered the art of conveying their thoughts clearly and succinctly while also being able to listen actively. This ensures that all team members understand their roles, the expectations set for them, and the overall strategic direction of the company. An effective communicator can also handle difficult conversations with tact, thereby ensuring that conflicts are resolved amicably and productivity remains unaffected.

8. Promoter

Being a promoter is a quality that effective leaders and managers possess. As promoters, they advocate for their team, their projects, and their organization. They strive to highlight the strengths and achievements of their team members, pushing for their recognition and advancement. Furthermore, they promote the values and vision of the company both internally and externally, enhancing its reputation and attracting new talent or clients.

These qualities and behaviors not only contribute to individual success but also to the overall success of the organization. Therefore, organizations should prioritize developing these qualities in their leaders and managers.

Problem solving and decision making process in nursing management

Problem solving and decision making are integral components of nursing management. These skills are crucial for delivering quality care, coordinating with other healthcare professionals, and ensuring efficient management of healthcare facilities. In an environment as dynamic and unpredictable as healthcare, the ability to effectively solve problems and make informed decisions can significantly impact patient outcomes and overall operational efficiency.

Problem solving

Problem solving in nursing management involves identifying, analyzing, and resolving issues that may arise in patient care or daily operations. It requires a deep understanding of the nursing process, clinical guidelines, and institutional policies. The problem-solving process typically starts with recognizing an issue or discrepancy. The nurse manager then gathers relevant information to understand the problem better. Once the problem has been defined clearly, potential solutions are generated and evaluated. The best solution is then implemented, and its effectiveness is monitored and adjusted as necessary.

Decision making

Decision making, on the other hand, is about selecting the best course of action from multiple alternatives. It is often a part of the problem-solving process but also stands alone in numerous situations. For example, a nurse manager might need to decide on staff scheduling, budget allocation, or policy changes. Effective decision making requires critical thinking, analysis, and judgment skills. It also necessitates a good understanding of the situation at hand, including the needs of patients, staff members, and the organization as a whole.

Both problem solving and decision making in nursing management should be based on evidence-based practices. Relying on scientific evidence helps ensure that solutions and decisions are effective and safe. It also promotes accountability and transparency in management practices.

Comparison and similarities of the Problem-Solving Process, Nursing Process, and the NCJMM Cognitive Skills in NCLEX-RN Exam

Problem solving, the nursing process, and the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) Clinical Judgment Measurement Model (NCJMM) cognitive skills all share a series of intricate similarities that are key to their effective implementation.

The NCJMM cognitive skills are key components of the NCLEX-RN exam. These skills refer to a nurse’s ability to understand, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information related to patient care. The nursing process, on the other hand, is a systematic method that involves five steps: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The phases of the problem solving process are similar to the nursing process. Understanding the nursing process and problem solving are crucial for a comprehensive understanding of NCJMM cognitive skills for CLEX-RN Exam success.

Nursing Process

The nursing process is an organized series of steps that nurses use to provide patient-centered care. It includes assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. For ultimate success in the NCLEX-RN Exam nurses should have comprehensive knowledge about the nursing process.

5 Steps of the Nursing Process

  1. Assessment
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Planning
  4. Implementation
  5. Evaluation

Problem Solving

Problem-solving is a step-by-step process that has similar steps to the nursing process, including identifying a problem (Assessment), analyzing it (Diagnosis), generating possible solutions (Planning), implementing the actions (Implementation), and then evaluating the chosen solution (Evaluation).

5 Steps of Problem Solving

  1. Assessment
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Planning
  4. Implementation
  5. Evaluation

NCJMM of Cognitive Skills

The NCJMM cognitive skills are a set of skills that focus on the ability to think critically and make decisions during the NCLEX-RN Exam. They involve identifying (Recognize Cues) and defining problems (Analyze Cues and Prioritize Hypotheses), generating alternative solutions, choosing among the alternatives by comparing their possible impacts (Generate Solutions), implementing the chosen solution (Take Action), and evaluating their effectiveness (Evaluate Outcomes).

6 Steps of NCJMM Cognitive Skills

  1. Recognize Cues
  2. Analyze Cues
  3. Prioritize Hypotheses
  4. Generate Solutions
  5. Take Action
  6. Evaluate Outcomes
Nursing ProcessProblem-SolvingNCJMM Cognitive Skills
1. Assessment1. Assessment1. Recognize Cues
2. Diagnosis2. Diagnosis2. Analyze Cue and Prioritize Hypotheses
3. Planning3. Planning3. Generate Solutions
4. Implementation4. Implementation4. Take Action
5. Evaluation5. Evaluation5. Evaluate Outcomes
Comparison and similarities of the Problem-Solving Process, Nursing Process, and the NCJMM Cognitive Skills


In conclusion, effective leadership and management are integral components for the success of any organization. They play a crucial role in achieving strategic objectives, fostering a positive work culture, and driving performance. Leadership and management go hand in hand- while leadership is about inspiring and motivating employees toward a common goal, management is about planning, organizing, and coordinating resources to achieve these goals.

Effective leadership and management require a combination of skills such as strategic thinking, communication, decision-making, and problem-solving. A great leader inspires their team to reach new heights, while an efficient manager ensures the path to these heights is clear of any obstacles. In essence, leadership is about people while management is about processes.


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*We express our gratitude towards the various sources referred in this blog post for their valuable contributions and insights. Their expertise and dedication have significantly enriched the content, and we extend our sincere appreciation to each of them for their valuable contributions.

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